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South America

One of the things leading to Fragile States in South America is poverty and unequal distribution of wealth in rural areas.

“Poverty in the South America region is often perceived as an urban phenomenon, since 70 per cent of the population is urban, and extensive urban slums are highly visible. But poverty affects a much higher proportion of the region’s rural population.
Brazil has about 20 million rural poor people, many of them in the arid north-east. Some rural poor people migrate to metropolitan areas such as São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. The poorest of the poor in South America are indigenous peasant communities in remote mountain areas in Bolivia, Peru and Ecuador. The harsh Andean environment is home to 35 per cent of the poorest people in the region, and three out of four rural people in the Andes live under the poverty line.
Rural poverty in the region is mainly associated with lack of access to and unequal distribution of productive land, and inadequate access to information and productive assets for smallholder farmers. In rural areas poor people also face the consequences of geographic isolation and limited public investment in education, health services and housing. Market-oriented policies adopted by governments during recent years have led to a decrease in investments in rural areas, contributing to an increase in rural poverty.
Rural women are among the poorest of the poor. They suffer the consequences of internal conflicts, migration of men both within and outside their country, and structural adjustments.
Rural poverty in the South Cone, or southern part of South America, is deepest among indigenous peoples such as the Mapuches in southern Chile and some 15 ethnic groups in Argentina, where the recent economic crisis has led to an increase in poverty in many urban and rural areas.”
(Taken from http://www.ruralpovertyportal.org/web/guest/region/home/tags/americas)

Brazil
http://www.ruralpovertyportal.org/web/guest/country/home/tags/brazil
Colombia
http://www.thetallgringo.com/p/about-colombia.html

De’Lesha

Europe has 476 people per square mile, which is more crowded than Asia. Brazil has 20 million poor people, some move to the metropolitan areas. Bolivia, Peru and Ecuador have communities where the poorest of the poor are contained. The reason behind it are things like unequal distribution of productive land and inadequate information to it all. Also there is geographic isolation and limited health services, education, and housing. Rural women are usually the poorest.

These are only two of the many countries that experience unequal wealth and rural poverty. What it seems is that in recent history South America as a whole has attempted to end poverty but has not entirely succeeded yet.

Corruption

A factor leading to the classification of the South American region as a fragile state is government, namely corruption.

To explain this image it is the corruption index as of 2009 and it has 3 countries within the top 30. In an op-ed I read in the Columbia Reports it talks about colombia and although Colombia is a country farther down the list it talks about how its problem(with corruption) is only getting worse. It goes on to say that over time citizens have come to trust their government less and it almost seems justified when in 2009 “48 thousand government officials, including 800 mayors and 30 governors, were being investigated for corruption”. In a major city they have also come to report crimes a much lower percentage of the time than they used to in the past.

To continue the trend of not trusting government officials it seems that in Venezuela citizens have begun lose trust in president Hugo Chavez. Some have called him out against not siding with the poor and he insulted their faith in their religion. Hurtful, but I do not think that was as a big as when he signed his referendum allowing indefinite re-election. He also plans on ruling into 2030 with socialist tactics and from what I’ve read it seems that his approval ratings steadily decline, so possibly it will be the end of hugo chavez era in venezuela a date far previous to 2030.

“President Hugo Chavez’s approval ratings remain in the 50 percent range, but a majority of Venezuelans disapprove of the government’s performance on key issues such as crime, corruption and the economy, according to a poll released Wednesday.

The survey by the Caracas-based polling firm Datanalisis said Chavez’s popularity stood at about 49 percent in late July, similar to his 50 percent rating the previous month. The poll consulted 1,300 Venezuelans and had a margin of error of nearly three percentage points.” (http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/09/07/venezuela-chavez-popularity_n_952860.html)

People in an Latin American Country attacking a random government official.

“Corruption continues to be the greatest threat to democracy in Latin America. It has retarded economic growth, and perpetuated poverty. It has accentuated inequities in the justice systems of Latin American countries so that the rule of law does not apply equally across social strata. It has contributed to increasing distrust in political parties and governments; it has exacerbated voter fatigue and limited citizen participation. In 2001, according to a study published by Transparency International, regional support for democracy fell to 48 percent, down from 58 percent the previous year. Only 25 percent of respondents across the region expressed satisfaction with their democratic government.” (http://www.worldpress.org/Americas/521.cfm)

In South America there is also a lot of corruption found in and between government officials and gang groups that deplete a lot of the economy by selling drugs in and around the countries found within South America like paraguay, brazil etc. and because of that things like agriculture that were once a business that South America could lean on slowly started to drain and go away because of the issues that were going on deeper inside the countries. Places inside South America like Rio de Janero where slums are a normal siting and within those slums you find a lot of gangs and cartels that use the community to sell their products which in turn causes a lot of corruption between the cartels and police because by buying off police inside these countries it causes a great deal of questioning from the people that live in those neighborhoods and slums

http://soulbrasileiro.com/main/rio-de-janeiro/social-problems/army-and-law-forces-corruption/policiais-corruptos-e-milicias/

Deforestation

A lot of the issues that are going on in South America are caused by the environment and how things like deforestation are effecting everything around it.

http://wesmantoddshaw.hubpages.com/hub/The-Belo-Monte-Dam-of-Brazil

Trevor Hinton:
In South America there is a specific dam called the Bel Monte where the government is eradicating the native people to make way for this super sized dam, and in doing so are causing a lot of uproar in the amazon forest where this is happening

http://wesmantoddshaw.hubpages.com/hub/The-Belo-Monte-Dam-of-Brazil
, A lot of the issues that are going on in South America are caused by the environment and how things like deforestation are effecting everything around it.

In South America there is also a lot of corruption found in and between government officials and gang groups that deplete a lot of the economy by selling drugs in and around the countries found within South America like paraguay, brazil etc. and because of that things like agriculture that were once a business that South America could lean on slowly started to drain and go away because of the issues that were going on deeper inside the countries. Places inside South America like Rio de Janero where slums are a normal siting and within those slums you find a lot of gangs and cartels that use the community to sell their products which in turn causes a lot of corruption between the cartels and police because by buying off police inside these countries it causes a great deal of questioning from the people that live in those neighborhoods and slums

http://soulbrasileiro.com/main/rio-de-janeiro/social-problems/army-and-law-forces-corruption/policiais-corruptos-e-milicias/

Sekai Harris:

The topic that I chose to do about South America was life expectancy. Life expectancy is basically how long the people usually live and for South America, many people only lived to be in their 70’s.  As I did more research I wondered why the people didn’t live very long and one thing that I found out was that they didn’t have many resources to keep them a live for very long. Below are a few links that help give more back ground information.

Links:

http://en.worldstat.info/South_America/List_of_countries_by_Life_expectancy_at_birth,_male_population

http://earthtrends.wri.org/text/population-health/variable-379.html

Chile- 78

Argentina- 77

Brazil- 73

Paraguay- 76

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